Scotland In Scotland , behaviour commonly described as stalking was already prosecuted as the Common Law offence of breach of the peace not to be confused with the minor English offence of the same description before the introduction of the statutory offence against s. Unlike many US jurisdictions they do not require the victim to have felt fear or distress as a result of the behaviour, only that a reasonable person would have felt this way. They may engage in vandalism and property damage or make physical attacks that are meant to frighten. Section has withstood Charter challenges. Before no specific offence existed in England and Wales but in Scotland incidents could be dealt with under pre-existing law with life imprisonment available for the worst offences England and Wales In England and Wales , " harassment " was criminalised by the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Act , which came into force on 16 June
Both the vengeance stalker and terrorist stalker the latter sometimes called the political stalker do not, in contrast with some of the aforementioned types of stalkers, seek a personal relationship with their victims but rather force them to emit a certain response. The song " Redneck Crazy " by American country music singer Tyler Farr is about a man who stalks both his unfaithful girlfriend and the man that she has been cheating on him with. They become illegal when they breach the legal definition of harassment e. Often Resentful stalkers present themselves as a victim who is justified in using stalking to fight back against an oppressing person or organisation. Victims who had been in a previous intimate relationship with their stalker. Romania Article of the Criminal Code states: Victims are strangers or acquaintances who are seen to have mistreated the stalker. Section has withstood Charter challenges. The act of stalking under this section is exemplified by contacting, or attempting to contact, a person by any means, publishing any statement or other material relating or purporting to relate to a person, monitoring the use by a person of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication, loitering in any place whether public or private , interfering with any property in the possession of a person or watching or spying on a person. In contrast, resentful stalkers demonstrate an almost "pure culture of persecution ", with delusional disorders of the paranoid type, paranoid personalities, and paranoid schizophrenia. This category of victims also includes neighbor stalking. The SRP uses a slightly more complex typology that provides extra information to assist professionals with understanding and managing stalking behaviour. The report did not break down these cases into numbers of victims who claimed to have been stalked by several people individually, and by people acting in concert. It is particularly restrictive, by the standards of this type of legislation. Stalking is a controversial crime because a conviction does not require any physical harm. Perpetrators are usually male and victims are usually female strangers in whom the stalker develops a sexual interest. She emphasizes that in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States, strangers are considered more dangerous when it comes to stalking than a former partner. Since gender roles are socially constructed, sometimes men don't report stalking. Media also plays an important role due to portrayals of male stalking behavior as acceptable, influencing men into thinking it is normal. However, most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression , adjustment disorder , or substance dependence , as well as a variety of personality disorders such as antisocial , borderline , or narcissistic. The Predatory stalker click to expand Predatory stalking arises in the context of deviant sexual practices and interests. Incompetent suitors, despite poor social or courting skills, have a fixation , or in some cases, a sense of entitlement to an intimate relationship with those who have attracted their amorous interest. Punishments vary from a maximum of 10 years imprisonment in some states, to a fine for the lowest severity of stalking in others. Their victims are most often already in a dating relationship with someone else. She discusses how victims might view certain forms of stalking as normal because of gender socialization influences on the acceptability of certain behaviors.
Video about stalking behaviour:
Stalker Psychology - Inside the Mind of a Stalker
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